The Drone Index: AVIC Wing Loong / Pterodactyl
It was only in the last 10 years that China’s vast aerospace sector turned to UAV production for surveillance and intelligence missions. Its progress since then has been impressive and proof of this is the MALE drone called the Wing Loong or “Pterodactyl” manufactured by the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC).
The Wing Loong’s existence became public knowledge in 2012 when it was exhibited at the high profile Zhuhai Air Show. (Other media outlets claim its debut was in 2010.) The Wing Loong made another appearance during the PLA’s victory parade in 2015 as part of a lavish display of modern weapons and equipment.
The prevailing impression of the Wing Loong is a Sinicized Predator B. But its resemblance is actually closer to the Israeli Hermes 900. This isn’t surprising since the current template for medium altitude UAV design is based on the Israeli inventor Abraham Karem’s original concept that’s still being copied today.
Bear in mind AVIC is the same firm that manufactures the J-10 multirole fighter. It’s a delta wing with canards model based on an Israeli design. Examining AVIC’s recent past does show a long and understated amount of collaboration with partners in Israel, whose own firms have been doing business with China for decades now.
Drone enthusiasts won’t find the Wing Loong too exotic. It retains a bulbous nose blister for housing its synthetic aperture radar and satellite tracking system. Underneath is a gimbal for its infrared camera and fire control system. Retractable tricycle landing gear is where it should be below an elongated fuselage made of a composite material like a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. The Wing Loong reportedly carries a 440 pound payload of sensors and weapons.
To complete its look the Wing Loong has a V-tail, a three-blade propeller with an underlying engine intake, and tapered mid-wing copied from the Hermes 900. Both models diverge on details like wingspan. The Wing Loong’s measures 45 feet. The Hermes 900 is 49 ft. But another glaring similarity is the maximum takeoff weight. For the Hermes 900 it’s 2,600 pounds and likewise for the Wing Loong at a close 2,535 lbs.
The length of the fuselage is proof the Wing Loong is a hybridized UAV rather than a direct copy. Based on measurements published by AVIC the Wing Loong is 29.5 feet from tail section to nose. This is closer to the MQ-9 Reaper of the US Air Force and the MQ-1C Gray Eagle of the US Army.
AVIC’s product literature on the Wing Loong explains its deployment in companies of four aircraft along with a ground control station and logistics and payload sets.
The Wing Loong’s capabilities are just as noteworthy. It manages an above average top speed of 280 km/h and a ceiling in the 24,600 ft range. Its endurance is in the 20 hour threshold common among MALE UAVs.
The specifications of the Wing Loong II were reportedly publicized during the China Aviation Expo 2015 in Beijing. This updated variant had a greater wingspan and a ceiling near 30,000 feet. The defense conglomerate Norinco is promoting its own improved Wing Loong called the Sky Saker; tangible proof the Wing Loong is the basis for a UAV lineage.
What this rapid proliferation hasn’t made clear is the Wing Loong’s engine type, avionics suite, and armaments. When it comes to the latter available images indicate the Wing Loong I supports two hardpoints for launching the HJ-10 air-to-surface missile that’s also used by Chinese attack helicopters. If the Wing Loong I and II are meant to fly armed then a 1,000 horsepower turbo diesel engine is essential.
There’s conflicting information on the Wing Loong’s exports. Saudi Arabia along with “several African countries” are cited as customers but none of these transactions have been verified.